Integrated Scale for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ISD-ASD)

Integrated Scale for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ISD-ASD)




Autism Spectrum Disorder, Diagnosis, Evaluation, Specific Scale, Autism Test


These theoretical-experimental antecedents, this study attempts advance iver research line regarding build an  integrated analysis scale that facilitates ASD´ specific diagnosis, based on disorder criteria, from evolutive-behavioral items and perceptual-cognitive criteria integrated into single diagnostic scale, whose main aims are following: 1) facilitate the statistical probability for ASD specific diagnosis, and 2) specify the empirical probability to ASD´level according to DSM-5 Intl classification.

Integrated Experimental Scale (ISD-ASD) made up of six dimensions which integrate development evolutive, behavior, social and communication abilities with variables regarding psycho- neurological perceptual-cognitive information processing: developing, communication, interaction, behavior, attention and cognition.

A total of 124 participants of three ASD levels, belonging nine age intervals (y-o) and sex/gender way have been analyzed to experimentally justify the Scale. Results increasingly show the effectiveness of the diagnosis of ASD. Thus, total mean of six dimensions of this study found between 5.77- 7.88 belong to ASD level-1, between 7.88- 9.01 to ASD level-2 level and a score ≥ 9.02 would correspond to ASD level -3.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Ojea Rúa Manuel, Universidade de Vigo

Prof. Dr. Psycho- Pedagogy


Abu-Akel, A., Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., & Heinke, D. (2019).The distribution of autistic traits across the autism spectrum: Evidence for discontinuous dimensional subpopulations underlying the autism continuum. Molecular Autism, 10(1), 24. DOI:

Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles (vol.30). Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, University of Vermont.

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing. DOI:

Arksey, H., & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19- 32. DOI:

Attwood, T. (1998). The Australian Scale for Asperger's Syndrome (A.S.A.S.). en T. Attwood (ed.), A Guide for Parents and Professionals. London & Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Bacon, E. C., Courchesne, E., Barnes, C. C., Cha, D., Pence, S., Schreibman, L., … & Pierce, K. (2018). Rethinking the idea of late autism spectrum disorder onset. Development and psychopathology, 30(2), 553- 569. https :// 57941 7001067. DOI:

Bagnato, S. J., Neisworth, S. J., Salvia, J., & Hunbt, F. M. (1999). Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS). Assessment Tool Early Childhood Indicators of Developmental Dysfunction. Baltimore: Brookes. P526.aspx#:~:text=Temperament%20and%20Atypical,of%20Developmental%20Dysfunction DOI:

Becerra-Culqui, T. A., Lynch, F. L., Owen-Smith, A. A., Spitzer, J., & Croen, L. A. (2018). Parental first concerns and timing of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(10), 3367- 3376. DOI:

Berument, S. K., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Pickles, A., & Bailey, A. (1999). Autism screening questionnaire: Diagnostic validity. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 444- 451. Doi: 10.1192/bjp.175.5.444. DOI:

Brignell, A., Williams, K., Jachno, K., Prior, M., Reilly, S., & Morgan, A. T. (2018). Patterns and predictors of language development from 4 to 7 years in verbal children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(10), 3282- 3295. DOI:

Carbone, P. S., Campbell, K., Wilkes, J., Stoddard, G. J., Huynh, K., … Gabrielsen, T. P. (2020). Primary Care Autism Screening and Later Autism Diagnosis. Pediatrics, 146(2), 2019-2314. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2019-2314 DOI:

Choueiri, R., & Wagner, S. (2015). A new interactive screening test for autism spectrum disorders in toddlers. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167, 460- 466. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.05.029. DOI:

Clark, M. L. E., Vinen, Z., Barbaro, J., & Dissanayake, C. (2018). School age outcomes of children diagnosed early and later with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(1), 92- 102. DOI:

Corbett, B. A., Newsom, C., Key, A. P., Qualls, L. R., & Edmiston, E. K. (2014). Examining the relationship between face processing and social interaction behavior in children with and without autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 6, 35. Doi: 10.1186/1866-1955-6-35 DOI:

Corbett, B. A., Schupp, C. W., Simon, D., Ryan, N., & Mendoza, S. (2010). Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism. Molecular Autism, 1, 13. DOI:

Dalsgaard, S., Thorsteinsson, E., Trabjerg, B. B., Schullehner, J., Plana-Ripoll, O., Brikell, I., … & Pedersen, C. B. (2019). Incidence rates and cumulative incidences of the full spectrum of diagnosed mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry, 77(2), 155- 164. sychiatry.2019.3523. DOI:

Ehlers, S., Gillberg, C., & Wing, L. (1999). A screening questionnaire for Asperger syndrome and other high-functioning autism spectrum disorders in school age children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 129- 141. Doi: 10.1023/a:1023040610384. DOI:

Gilliam, J. E. (2001). Gilliam Asperger’s disorder scale. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Gilliam, J. E. (2005). Gilliam autism rating scale GARS-2 (2nd ed). México: PROED.

Gilliam, J. E. (2010). Gilliam Autism Rating Scale. Mexico: Rústica. ISBN: 13: 9789707293656

Goodwin, A., Matthews, N. L., & Smith, C. J. (2018). Parent-reported early symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in children without intellectual disability who were diagnosed at school age. Autism, 23(3) 770- 782. https :// 61318 77724 3. DOI:

Hayes, J., Ford, T., Rafeeque, H., & Russell, G. (2018). Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in adults and children in the UK: A narrative review. BMC Psychiatry, 18, 222. ttps:// DOI:

Höfer, J., Hoffmann, F., Kamp-Becker, I., Poustka, L., Roessner, V., Stroth, S., … & Bachmann, C. J. (2019). Pathways to a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in Germany: A survey of parents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 13(1), 1- 10. DOI:

Højslev, S., Hove, P., Schendel, D., Jørgensen, M., Helles, A., & •Clausen, L. (2021). Factors Associated with a Delayed Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis in Children Previously Assessed on Suspicion of Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51, 3843- 3856. DOI:

Kelley, E., Paul, J. J., Fein, D. & Naigles, L. R. (2006). Residual language deficits in optimal outcome children with a history of Autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(6), 807- 828. DOI:

Krug, D. A., Arick, J. R., & Almond, P. J. (2008). Autism screening instrument for education planning (3th ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnosis interview–revised: a revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24, 659- 685. DOI: 10.1007/BF02172145 DOI:

Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (1999). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. DOI:

Matson, J. L., Wilkins, J., Sevin, J. A., Knight, C., Boisjoli, J. A., & Sharp, B. (2009). Reliability and item content of the baby and infant screen for children with autism traits (BISCUIT): Parts 1- 3. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(2), 336-344. DOI:

Montiel-Nava, C., Chacín, J. A., & González-Ávila, Z. (2017). Age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in Latino children: The case of Venezuelan children. Autism, 21(5), 573- 580. DOI:

Myles, B., Bock, S., & Sympson, R. (2001). Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale. Los Ángeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2012). Autism: Recognition, referral, diagnosis and management of adults on the autism spectrum (Clinical guideline 142).

Ojea, M., & Tellado, F. (2018). Semantic Integration Evaluation Scale (SIS) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Open Access Journal of Addiction and Psychology, 1(3), 1- 6.

Oosterling, I., Roos, S., Bildt, A., Rommelse, N., Jonge, M., Visser, J., Lappenschaar, M., … & Buitelaar, J. (2010). Improved diagnostic validity of the ADOS Revised algorithms: A replication study in an independent sample. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 689- 703. Doi: 10.1007/s10803-009-0915-0. DOI:

Ozonoff, S., Young, G. S., Brian, J., Charman, T., Shephard, E., Solish, A., & Zwaigenbaum, L. (2018). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder after age 5 in children evaluated longitudinally since infancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(11), 849- 857.e842. DOI:

Penner, M., Anagnostou, E., Andoni, L. Y., & Ungar, W. J. (2018). Systematic review of clinical guidance documents for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic assessment in select regions, 22(5), 517- 527. DOI:

Pierce, K., Gazestani, V. H., Bacon, E., Barnes, C. C., Cha, D., Nalabolu, S., Lopez, L., Moore, A., Pence- tophaeros, S., & Courchesne, E. (2019). Evaluation of the diagnostic stability of the early autism spectrum disorder phenotype in the general population starting at 12 months. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(6), 578- 587. Doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0624. DOI:

RITA-T Autism Test: Rapid Interactive Screening Test for Autism in Toddlers. (2015). University of Massachusetts Medical School. https://www.umass mRITA -T.

Riviére, A. (1997). Tratamiento y definición del espectro autista II: anticipación, flexibilidad y capacidades simbólicas. En A. Rivière y J. Martos (Comps.), El tratamiento del autismo: nuevas perspectivas (pp. 107-170). Madrid: Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales.

Robins, D. L., Casagrande, K., Barton, M., Chen, C. M. A., Dumont-Mathieu, T., & Fein, D. (2014). Validation of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers, revised with follow- up (M-CHAT-R/F). Pediatrics, 133, 37- 45. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-1813. DOI:

Robins, D. L., Fein, D., Barton, M. L., & Green, J. A. (2001). The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers: An initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(2), 131- 144. Doi: 10.1023/a:1010738829569. DOI:

Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social Communication Questionnaire (SQC). Los Ángeles: Western Psychological Services.

Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Autism diagnostic interview revised (ADI-R). Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. DOI: DOI:

Schendel, D. E., & Thorsteinsson, E. (2018). Cumulative Incidence of autism into adulthood for birth cohorts in Denmark, 1980- 2012. JAMA, 320(17), 1811- 1813. DOI:

Scott, F., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Brayne, C. (2002). Childhood Asperger syndrome test (CAST). Autism 6(1), 9-31. DOI:

Sheldrick, R. C., Maye, M. P., & Carter, A. S. (2017). Age at first identification of autism spectrum disorder: An analysis of two US Surveys. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(4), 313- 320. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.01.012. DOI:

Siegel, B. (1996). The pervasive developmental disorders screening test. San Francisco: Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California. Doi: DOI:

Siu, A. L., Bibbins- Domingo, K., Grossman, D. C., Baumann, L. C., Davidson, K. W., Ebell, M., … & Krist, A. H. (2016). Screening for autism spectrum disorder in young children: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315, 691- 696. Doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0018. DOI:

Skuse, D. H., Mandy, W. P., & Scourfield, J. (2005). Measuring autistic traits: heritability, reliability and validity of the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 187(6), 568-572. DOI:

Squires, J., Bricker, D., Twombly, E., & Yockelson, S. (2002). Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE): A Parent-Completed, Child-Monitoring System for Social-Emotional Behaviors. Brookes Publishing Company. DOI:

Stichter, J., Stormont, M., Buranova, N., Herzog, M., & O’Donnell, R. (2021). Educational and Diagnostic Classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Associated Characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51, 4033- 4042. DOI:

Stone, W. L. (2018). Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT). Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders (5th edition). Editors: Fred R. Volkmar. Doi: DOI:

Stone, W. L., Coonrod, E. E., Turner, L. M., & Pozdol, S. L. (2004). Psychometric properties of the STAT for early autism screening. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34(6), 691- 701. Doi: 10.1007/s10803-004-5289-8 DOI:

Stone, W. L., Mcmahon, C. R., & Henderson, L. M. (2008). Use of the screening tool for autism in two-year-olds (STAT) for children under 24 months. Autism, 12(5), 557–573. Doi: 10.1177/1362361308096403. DOI:

U.S. Department of Education. (2001). Number of children served under IDEA by disability and age group, during school years 1991-92 through 2000-01. Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis System (DANS). s24th %5Car aa9.htm.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Surveillance Summaries, 63(2), 1- 21.

van ’t Hof, M., Tisseur´, Ch., 1, van Berckelear- Onnes, I., van Nieuwenhuyzen, A., Daniels, A. D., Deen, M., Hoek, H. W., & Ester, W. A. (2021). Age at autism spectrum disorder diagnosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis from 2012 to 2019. Autism, 25(4) 862- 873. Doi: 10.1177/1362361320971107 DOI:

Wetherby, A., & Prizant, B. M. (2002). Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant/Toddler Checklist. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. DOI:

Whitehouse, A. J. O., Evans, K., Eapen, V., & Wray, J. (2018). A national guideline for the assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in Australia. Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism.

World Health Organization (2004). ICD-10: Mental and behavioral disorders: Clinical descriptions and guidelines for follow-up. World Health Organization. United Nations Organization (UN). ISBN 10: 9241544228. ISBN 13: 9789241544221

World Health Organization (2014). Comprehensive and coordinated efforts for the management of autism spectrum disorders (WHA67.8). Sixty-Seventh World Health Assembly, Geneva, witzerland.

World Health Organization. (2018). International classification of diseases for mortality and morbidity statistics (11th revision). Geneva: World Health Organization. Doi: 10.1186/s12911-021-01534-6 DOI:

Wu, C. C., & Chiang, C. H. (2014). The developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism: A longitudinal study. Autism, 18(4), 385- 392. DOI:

Wu, C. C., Chiang, C. H., Hou, Y. M., Chu, C. L., & Liu, J. H. (2019). Utility of the Taiwan version of the screening tool for autism in two-year-olds to detect autism in children aged three years. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 44(3), 337- 345. DOI:




How to Cite

Manuel, O. R. (2022). Integrated Scale for Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ISD-ASD). International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 10(9), 202–274.
Received 2022-08-04
Accepted 2022-08-19
Published 2022-09-01